Builder & date
|1||Shwesanda||Anawratha (1044-1077) 1058||Bagan|
|2||Lawkananda||Anawratha (1044-1077) 1059||Thiripyitsaya|
|3||Shwezigon||Anawrahta(1044-1077), Kyansittha(1084-1113)||Nyaung U|
|5||Seinnyet Ama||Q. Seinyet 11th C.||Myinkaba|
|6||Seinnyet Nyima||Q. Seinyet 11th C.||Myinkaba|
|8||Ananda||Kyansittha (1084-1113) 1090||Bagan|
|9||Gubyaukgyi (M)||Rajakumar 1113||Myinkaba|
|10||Shwegugyi||Alaungsithu (1113-1163) 1131||Bagan|
|15||Sulamani||Narapatisithu (1174-1211), 1181||Minnanthu|
|16||Htilominlo||Nantaungmya (1211-1234) 1218||Bagan|
|17||Upali Thein||Nantaungmya (1211-1234)||Bagan|
|19||Gubyaukgyi (W)||13th. C.||Wetkyi-in|
|20||Thambula||Q. Thambula 1255||Minnanthu|
|21||Mingalazedi||Narathihapati (1256-1287) 1277||Bagan|
Shwesanda was built in 1058 by Anawratha (1044-1077) to house a holy hair relic given to him by the king of Bago to thank him for his help in repelling a Khmer invasion.
Lawkananda pagoda was built in 1059 by Anawratha (1044-1077) in Thiripyitsaya on the riverside of the Ayeyerwady, to enshrine a replica of the holy tooth relic sent to him by the king of Sri Lanka and kept in the Shwezigon.
Its base is now being completely overlaid with cut to measure welded copper plates that will be subsequently covered with gold foil like the top. Each temple and pagoda in Myanmar is a financially independent unit managed by a board of trustees. The funds for the work carried out here come from donations made by people who hope to gain merit towards a better future existence.
This 18 meter figure, the largest reclining Buddha in Bagan, is housed in a rather unattractive brick structure built sometime in the 11th century.
The Ama Temple on the left and the Nyima Pagoda on the right are said to have both been built by Queen Seinnyet in the 11th century but the style of the Ama Temple is more recent (13th century).
This temple was built in 1059 by Manuha, the Mon king of Thaton while he was held prisoner in Bagan after Anawratha's conquest of the Mon kingdom. It holds three seated and one reclining Buddhas in very small enclosures, their cramped positions being said to reflect Manuha's unhappiness at being a prisoner.
The Gubyaukgyi Temple of Myinkaba was built in 1113 by Rajakumar, son of King Kyansittha. According to the story, Kyansittha had an affair with Thambula during one of his escapades seven years before becoming king at which time she appeared with the ring he had given her and their son. Kyansittha made her his Queen and gave her three villages of slaves which Rajakumar inherited when she died. Later, as Kyansittha was dying, Rajakumar used his inheritance to build Gubyaukgyi and dedicated it to his father. (There is another Gubyaukgyi Temple but it was built in the mid 13th century in Wetkyi-in.)
The very elegant Shwegugyi (Golden Cave) Temple, built in 1131 by King Alaungsithu, was destined to witness the builder's murder by his son Narathu in 1163.
The magnificent white Thatbyinnu temple, built by King Alaungsithu (1113-1163), is one of the highest in Bagan. It contains a maze of interior passages that unfortunately cannot be visited by ordinary tourists...
The trustees of Thatbyinnu did not forget to display the alms boxes!
The massive Dhammayangyi temple is said to have been built by Narathu (1167-1170). It contains an inner maze of corridors and staircases only part of which can be visited for the innermost one has been filled with rubble.
Nanpaya is a riddle as it contains images of the four faced Hindu god Brahma which is rather odd for a Buddhist temple and its date of construction remains unknown.
The two storied Sulamani temple was built by King Narapatisithu (1174-1211) to earn merit.
This composite picture shows the entrance of the lower storey of the temple around which runs a corridor with niches for Buddhas. Narrow stairs go up to the terrace giving access to the second storey which also has a circular inner corridor.
Here is one of the Buddhas inside Sulamani temple. Notice the alms boxes full of Kyats.
The large two storeyed temple seen from a distance is called Htilominlo after its builder who reigned from 1211 to 1234.
It would have taken a 24mm wide angle lens to get all of Htilominlo. I did not have one so I made this composite.
Below on the left, the details of a secondary doorway and on the right, one of the Buddhas inside. Notice the small squares of gold foil that the faithful have started to stick on the Buddha!
There are many temples and pagodas left around Bagan but only a few ordination halls (Thein), because these were generally wooden. This one was built of bricks sometime around 1250 and named Upali to honor a famous monk who lived during the reign of Htilominlo (1211-1234).
Inside, this Buddha, seated in the Bhumisparsha-mudra posture is calling the earth to testify as to his good deeds in the past that make him worthy of being a Buddha when challenged by the evil spirit Mara.
The Lemyethaya temple or "Temple of the Four Faces" was built in 1223 by Anandathura who was a minister at the court of King Htilominlo (1211-1234).
This is the pyramidal spire that rises from the first storey of the Gubyaukgyi (big cave) temple built in the mid 13th century near Wetkyi-in. (There is another Gubyaukgyi Temple built earlier in 1131 near Myinkaba.)
This harmonious, late style temple was built by Queen Thambula, the consort of King Uzana, in 1255 (this is a different Thambula from the one that was King Kyanzittha's queen more than a century earlier).
The Mingalazedi Pagoda, finished in 1274 by King Narathihapate (1256-1287), was one of the last monuments built in Bagan before the Mongol invasion.
The three contiguous temples called Payathonzu are assigned to the late 13th century. The two eastern temples are well decorated with paintings but the western one is unfinished as if work on it had been interrupted by the Mongol invasion.